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Before the late medieval period, there was a single Duchy of Saxony. The term "Lower Saxony" was used after the dissolution of the stem duchy in the late 13th century to disambiguate the parts of the former duchy ruled by the House of Welf from the Electorate of Saxony on one hand, and from the Duchy of Westphalia on the other.

The name and coat of arms of the present state go back to the Germanic tribe of Saxons. During the Migration Period some of the Saxon peoples left their homeland in Holstein about the 3rd century and pushed southwards over the Elbe, where they expanded into the sparsely populated regions in the rest of the lowlands, in the present-day Northwest Germany and the northeastern part of what is now the Netherlands.

From about the 7th century the Saxons had occupied a settlement area that roughly corresponds to the present state of Lower Saxony, of Westphalia and a number of areas to the east, for example, in what is now west and north Saxony-Anhalt.

The Frisians had not moved into this region; for centuries they preserved their independence in the most northwesterly region of the present-day Lower Saxon territory.

The original language of the folk in the area of Old Saxony was West Low German , one of the varieties of language in the Low German dialect group.

The establishment of permanent boundaries between what later became Lower Saxony and Westphalia began in the 12th century.

In , in a treaty between the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg the lands claimed by the two territories were separated from each other.

The northern part of the Weser-Ems region was placed under the rule of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The word Niedersachsen was first used before in a Dutch rhyming chronicle Reimchronik.

At the same time a distinction was made with the eastern part of the old Saxon lands from the central German principalities later called Upper Saxony for dynastic reasons.

The close historical links between the domains of the Lower Saxon Circle now in modern Lower Saxony survived for centuries especially from a dynastic point of view.

The majority of historic territories whose land now lies within Lower Saxony were sub-principalities of the medieval, Welf estates of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

All the Welf princes called themselves dukes "of Brunswick and Lüneburg" despite often ruling parts of a duchy that was forever being divided and reunited as various Welf lines multiplied or died out.

Over the course of time two great principalities survived east of the Weser: the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after Hanover became a Prussian province ; after Brunswick became a free state.

Historically a close tie exists between the royal house of Hanover Electorate of Hanover to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as a result of their personal union in the 18th century.

West of the River Hunte a "de-Westphalianising process" began in [7] After the Congress of Vienna the territories of the later administrative regions Regierungsbezirke of Osnabrück and Aurich transferred to the Kingdom of Hanover.

This indicates that at that time the western administrations of the Prussian Province of Hanover and the state of Oldenburg were perceived as being "Lower Saxon".

The forerunners of today's state of Lower Saxony were lands that were geographically and, to some extent, institutionally interrelated from very early on.

The County of Schaumburg not to be confused with the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe around the towns of Rinteln and Hessisch Oldendorf did indeed belong to the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau until , a province that also included large parts of the present state of Hesse, including the cities of Kassel , Wiesbaden and Frankfurt am Main ; but in , however, the County of Schaumburg became part of the Prussian Province of Hanover.

Also before , namely , the city of Cuxhaven has been fully integrated into the Prussian Province of Hanover by the Greater Hamburg Act , so that in , when the state of Lower Saxony was founded, only four states needed to be merged.

With the exception of Bremen and the areas that were ceded to the Soviet Occupation Zone in , all those areas allocated to the new state of Lower Saxony in , had already been merged into the "Constituency Association of Lower Saxony" in In a lecture on 14 September , Dietmar von Reeken described the emergence of a "Lower Saxony consciousness" in the 19th century, the geographical basis of which was used to invent a territorial construct: the resulting local heritage societies Heimatvereine and their associated magazines routinely used the terms "Lower Saxony" or "Lower Saxon" in their names.

At the end of the s in the context of discussions about a reform of the Reich, and promoted by the expanding local heritage movement Heimatbewegung , a year conflict started between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia".

The supporters of this dispute were administrative officials and politicians, but regionally focussed scientists of various disciplines were supposed to have fuelled the arguments.

In the s, a real Lower Saxony did not yet exist, but there was a plethora of institutions that would have called themselves "Lower Saxon".

The motives and arguments in the disputes between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia" were very similar on both sides: economic interests, political aims, cultural interests and historical aspects.

Its minister president, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , had already suggested in June the formation of a state of Lower Saxony, that was to include the largest possible region in the middle of the British Zone.

In addition to the regions that actually became Lower Saxony subsequently, Kopf asked, in a memorandum dated April , for the inclusion of the former Prussian district of Minden-Ravensberg i.

The strong Welf connotations of this draft, according to Thomas Vogtherr, did not simplify the development of a Lower Saxon identity after An alternative model, proposed by politicians in Oldenburg and Brunswick, envisaged the foundation of the independent state of "Weser-Ems", that would be formed from the state of Oldenburg, the Hanseatic City of Bremen and the administrative regions of Aurich and Osnabrück.

Several representatives of the state of Oldenburg even demanded the inclusion of the Hanoverian districts of Diepholz , Syke , Osterholz-Scharmbeck and Wesermünde in the proposed state of "Weser-Ems".

Likewise an enlarged State of Brunswick was proposed in the southeast to include the Regierungsbezirk of Hildesheim and the district of Gifhorn.

Had this plan come to fruition, the territory of the present Lower Saxony would have consisted of three states of roughly equal size. If the State of Oldenburg was to be dissolved, Vechta District would much rather be included in the Westphalian region.

Since the foundation of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hanover on 23 August the northern and eastern border of North Rhine-Westphalia has largely been identical with that of the Prussian Province of Westphalia.

In the end, at the meeting of the Zone Advisory Board on 20 September , Kopf's proposal with regard to the division of the British occupation zone into three large states proved to be capable of gaining a majority.

But there were exceptions:. The demands of Dutch politicians that the Netherlands should be given the German regions east of the Dutch-German border as war reparations , were roundly rejected at the London Conference of 26 March In fact only about 1.

The first Lower Saxon parliament or Landtag met on 9 December It was not elected; rather it was established by the British Occupation Administration a so-called "appointed parliament".

That same day the parliament elected the Social Democrat , Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , the former Hanoverian president Regierungspräsident as their first minister president.

Kopf led a five-party coalition, whose basic task was to rebuild a state afflicted by the war's rigours. Kopf's cabinet had to organise an improvement of food supplies and the reconstruction of the cities and towns destroyed by Allied air raids during the war years.

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf remained — interrupted by the time in office of Heinrich Hellwege — — as the head of government in Lower Saxony until The greatest problem facing the first state government in the immediate post-war years was the challenge of integrating hundreds of thousands of refugees from Germany's former territories in the east such as Silesia and East Prussia , which had been annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

Lower Saxony was at the western end of the direct escape route from East Prussia and had the longest border with the Soviet Zone.

On 3 October Lower Saxony took over the sponsorship of the very large number of refugees from Silesia. In there was still a shortage of , homes according to official figures.

During the period when Germany was divided, the Lower Saxon border crossing at Helmstedt found itself on the main transport artery to West Berlin and, from to was the busiest European border crossing point.

Of economic significance for the state was the Volkswagen concern, that restarted the production of civilian vehicles in , initially under British management, and in transferred into the ownership of the newly founded country of West Germany and state of Lower Saxony.

Overall, Lower Saxony, with its large tracts of rural countryside and few urban centres, was one of the industrially weaker regions of the federal republic for a long time.

Even in economically prosperous times the jobless totals in Lower Saxony are constantly higher than the federal average.

He was replaced in by Alfred Kubel. The arguments about the Gorleben Nuclear Waste Repository , that began during the time in office of minister president Ernst Albrecht — , have played an important role in state and federal politics since the end of the s.

In Gerhard Schröder entered the office of minister president. It enables referenda and plebiscites and establishes environmental protection as a fundamental state principle.

From these parishes the new municipality of Amt Neuhaus was created on 1 October Because he had been linked with various scandals in his home city of Brunswick, he resigned in and was replaced by Sigmar Gabriel.

After the elections on 20 January McAllister was deselected. Between and , the state's districts and independent towns were grouped into eight regions, with different status for the two regions Verwaltungsbezirke comprising the formerly free states of Brunswick and Oldenburg.

In the regions were merged into four governorates Regierungsbezirke : Since the Bezirksregierungen regional governments have been broken up again.

On 1 January the four administrative regions or governorates Regierungsbezirke , into which Lower Saxony had been hitherto divided, were dissolved.

The According to the archaeozoologist Ivo Verheijen, 6. Researchers also uncovered two long bones and 30 small flint flakes that were used as tools for knapping among the elephant bones.

Jordi Serangeli. At the end of , there were almost Religion in Lower Saxony Census : [22]. The census stated that a majority of the population were Christians As of , the Evangelical Church in Germany was the faith of Together, these member churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany gather a substantial part of the Protestant population in Germany.

The Catholic Church was the faith of The Catholic faith is mainly concentrated to the regions of Oldenburger Münsterland, region of Osnabrück, region of Hildesheim and in the Western Eichsfeld.

The Gross domestic product GDP of the state was Agriculture, strongly weighted towards the livestock sector, has always been a very important economic factor in the state.

The north and northwest of Lower Saxony are mainly made up of coarse sandy soil that makes crop farming difficult and therefore grassland and cattle farming are more prevalent in those areas.

Towards the south and southeast, extensive loess layers in the soil left behind by the last ice age allow high-yield crop farming. One of the principal crops there is sugar beet.

Consequently, the Land has a big food industry, mainly organized in small and medium-sized enterprises SME. Mining has also been an important source of income in Lower Saxony for centuries.

Silver ore became a foundation of notable economic prosperity in the Harz Mountains as early as the 12th century, while iron mining in the Salzgitter area and salt mining in various areas of the state became another important economic backbone.

Although overall yields are comparatively low, Lower Saxony is also an important supplier of crude oil in the European Union.

Mineral products still mined today include iron and lignite. Radioactive waste is frequently transported in the area to the city of Salzgitter , for the deep geological repository Schacht Konrad and between Schacht Asse II in the Wolfenbüttel district and Lindwedel and Höfer.

Manufacturing is another large part of the regional economy. Despite decades of gradual downsizing and restructuring, the car maker Volkswagen with its five production plants within the state's borders still remains the single biggest private-sector employer, its world headquarters in Wolfsburg.

Due to the Volkswagen Law , which has recently been ruled illegal by the European Union 's high court, the state of Lower Saxony is still the second largest shareholder, owning Meyer Werft , biotechnology , and steel.

Medicine plays a major role: Hanover and Göttingen have two large University Medical Schools and hospitals and Otto Bock in Duderstadt is the word leader in prosthetics.

The service sector has gained importance following the demise of manufacturing in the s and s. Important branches today are the tourism industry with TUI AG in Hanover, one of Europe's largest travel companies, as well as trade and telecommunication.

Hanover is one of Germany's main location of insurance companies e. Talanx , Hannover Re. In October the unemployment rate stood at 5. Lower Saxony has four World Heritage Sites.

Michael's Church in Hildesheim. Upper Harz Water Regale. Lower Saxony was one of the origins of the German environmentalist movement in reaction to the state government's support for underground nuclear waste disposal.

This led to the formation of the German Green Party in In the election , the ruling CDU held on to its position as the leading party in the state, despite losing votes and seats.

The election also saw the entry into the state parliament for the first time of the leftist The Left party. He governs in coalition with the CDU.

Hanover, a former kingdom, is by far the largest of these contributors by area and population and has been a province of Prussia since The city of Hanover is the largest and capital city of Lower Saxony.

The constitution states that Lower Saxony be a free, republican, democratic, [30] social and environmentally sustainable state inside the Federal Republic of Germany; universal human rights, peace and justice are preassigned guidelines of society, and the human rights and civil liberties proclaimed by the constitution of the Federal Republic are genuine constituents of the constitution of Lower Saxony.

Each citizen is entitled to education and there is universal compulsory school attendance. All government authority is to be sanctioned by the will of the people, which expresses itself via elections and plebiscites.

Nevertheless, by the late s the population was close to eight million. Recent growth is largely attributable to immigration.

Agriculture, the traditional mainstay of the local economy, remains more important in Lower Saxony than in most other German states, with farms producing wheat , rye , oats , potatoes , sugar beets , and dairy and beef cattle.

The Emsland region has endured a long struggle to drain its peat bogs. Farmers there and farther west have created new farmland by mixing the peat with underlying sand , artificial fertilizers , and manure from livestock raised on technologically advanced, capital-intensive farms.

These practices, however, have come under scrutiny because of the conditions under which the animals are raised and the impact on groundwater.

Manufacturing and services now form the base of the economy, however, and Hannover and Braunschweig are major centres of diversified industries.

Lower Saxony also produces small amounts of coal and oil. Lower Saxony has excellent transport facilities, and Hannover is the most important road and rail junction in northwestern Germany.

In addition, the major rivers, notably the Weser and the Elbe , are navigable for considerable distances. The governmental structure of Lower Saxony includes a prime minister , the Landtag state parliament , a state chancellory, and several ministries.

Justice is administered by means of a constitutional court, courts of appeal, regional courts, and local courts. Lower Saxony. Article Media.

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